|Kamehameha I routes Oahu's forces at Nu'uanu Pali (Cliff), Battle of Nu'uanu by Herb Kawanui Kane |
In 1897, excavators constructing the Pali road found 800 skulls at the base of the cliff, most likely belonging
to the defeated Oahuans and marking the last major battle in Kamehameha's conquest
and unification of the Hawaiian Islands. 
|Karakakooa, O-Why-hee  An etching depicting Cook's expedition. Kamehameha's|
fleet of war canoes, supported by a European brig crewed by Hawaiians likely made sail
from this harbor on its way to conquer Maui, Molokai, and eventually Oahu.
|Kamehameha's initial landings at Waikiki and Maunalua Bay. His beaches were bisected|
by Le'ahi (Diamondhead). He would place himself with the smaller force at Waikiki. (Author)
|Forest trail east of Nuuanu Pali Drive. This is what Kamehameha's army fought through|
in 1795 as they rolled over the Oahuan strongholds from Elekoki and La'aimi to Ahipu'a and Pu'iwa.
The strongholds, however, only allowed the Oahuans a moment to consolidate and delay before falling back under constant pressure from Kamehameha's Hawaiians. Pu'iwa was perhaps the bloodiest of these delaying actions and would be the decisive battle. Although Kalanikupule would rally is army in the coming days at Kahuailanawai and make a final stand at the Pali, the tide turned for good at the Strongholds.
|Upper Luakaha Stream, North of Jackass Ginger Pool. The Oahuans and their allies|
likely passed through here during their retreat from Pu'iwa and Kahualanawai.
|Nu'uawanu Pass. Kalanikapule had already lost the war at Pu'iwa, perhaps even before that.|
There was only one way for this to end. The Pali and one of the most unsung "Last Stands"
in history was only a few more miles away.
|Windward shore of Oahu, Southwest of Kaneohe. |
This is what Kamehameha saw as he looked over the Pali.
-Cincinnatus Halawa Luluku Interpretive Development Project, http://www.hlid.org/timeline/1700s/kamehameha-conquers/, accessed 25 May 12.
 Jerry Walker, Teacher of Lua (Hawaiian Military Arts), as quoted in The Battle of Nu'uanu, http://www.pacificworlds.com/nuuanu/native/native2.cfm, accessed 23 May 12.
 A view of Karakakooa, in Owyhee. J. Webber del, W. Byrne sculp. Plate 68 from Cook, James, 1728-1779. A voyage to the Pacific Ocean : undertaken, by the command of His Majesty, for making discoveries in the northern hemisphere ... : performed under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore, in His Majesty's ships the Resolution and Discovery : in the years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780. Vol. I and II written by James Cook ; vol. III by James King. Volume IV. Atlas., National Library of Australia, http://www.nla.gov.au/apps/cdview?pi=nla.aus-nk1428-4-s68, accessed 30 May 12.